Animals get sick no less often than humans. And they need treatment, including injecting drug preparations. Self-medication is not worth it, but sometimes, even before visiting a veterinary clinic, you must enter an analgesic or doctor’s recommendations for injections at home. Therefore every owner must know how to give the dog a shot.
- 1. General recommendations for injection therapy
- 2. How to choose a syringe
- 3. How to calculate the volume of medicine
- 4. General rules for prescribing drugs
- 5. Methods of administering medication under the skin
- 6. Technique of injection into the thickness of the muscle
General recommendations for injection therapy
Dogs are given injections subcutaneously and intramuscularly. Recommendations for the veterinarian gives this medicine or this information indicated in the instructions. The owner of the animal should carefully comply with the recommended dosage and type of administration medicines.
How to choose a syringe
In order to maximally sparingly inject, you should correctly choose the volume of the syringe and the diameter of the needle. Small breeds and puppies can be given injections with an insulin syringe. Diameter insulin needles in syringes of different manufacturers is 0.3, 025, 0.23 mm. The length of the needle also varies (4-8 mm).
Some tuberculin injection syringes have needle lengths is 13-25 mm with a diameter of 0.3-0.5 mm. This allows inject the medicine into the subcutaneous fat almost painlessly fiber. But such a syringe has a small volume. Standard insulin syringe holds 1.0 ml of the solution and with the introduction of a large doses of the drug it is impractical to use.
In addition, the sharp tip of the insulin needle quickly deforms, especially if the injection is placed in dense skin at the withers. He bends in the form of a hook, which is clearly visible with a strong optical increase. Such deformation requires more force to insertion of the needle during repeated use and severely injures tissue when retrieving.
Medium to large dog breeds require larger syringes volume, since the calculation of the dose is carried out depending on body weight animal. Use medium-volume syringes (2 or 5 ml). For to less injure tissue, you can to the cylinder of a large syringe place a smaller diameter needle with a suitable base.
When choosing the length of the needle should be guided by the place of delivery drug product. If you need to give an injection subcutaneously, then the insulin syringe will successfully cope with the task. Insulin length the needle does not require tracking of the depth of immersion when introduced Medium and large dogs. It’s just enough not to get into the muscle. But if you need to do an intramuscular injection, then the insulin syringe will not work and a longer one is required needle.
In addition, when choosing a syringe and, especially, the diameter of the needle, take into account the viscosity of the drug. Many veterinary drugs, especially prolonged action, are prepared on an oil basis. The high density of the drug does not allow the use of small needles diameter. For their introduction, it is recommended to use needles with a diameter 0.5-0.7 mm.
The diameter of the needle, its length can be found in the information posted on the packaging of the syringe. To help in choosing the diameter of their needles The plastic base is made in different colors.
For injection, 8 types of syringes with color base:
- orange (0.5 mm);
- blue (0.6 mm);
- black (0.7mm);
- dark green (0.8 mm);
- yellow (0.9 mm);
- pink (1.2 mm).
And you also need insulin.
How to calculate the volume of medicine
Before you take the medicine into the syringe, you need to familiarize yourself with scale on his body. In order to correctly calculate how much to take medicine, it is recommended to determine the value of one divisions. To do this, subtract the smaller from the larger value and divide by the number of “scratches” between two large divisions.
So, for example, in a 5 ml syringe, the calculation formula is as follows way: (3-2) / 5 = 0.2. Therefore, one division of a 5 cc the syringe is 0.2 ml. The exception is insulin syringes. As their flask contains only 1 ml of solution, then between large divisions, for example, between 1 and 2, only 0.2 ml is contained.
The ability to correctly calculate the “price” of divisions on a syringe will not allow lose a drop of an expensive drug or avoid complications with the introduction of extra milliliters of dangerous drugs. After the diameter of the needle and the volume of the syringe selected, you should familiarize yourself with rules on how to inject a dog subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
General rules for prescribing drugs
Regardless of the type of drug, there are general rules for recruitment solution into the syringe:
- Before the procedure, hands should be washed with soap and wipe alcohol or disinfectant.
- The needle of the syringe must be sterile, so you can not touch it hands.
- The neck of the ampoule can also be treated with alcohol.
- Cut along the mark with a special nail file and, holding it with a cotton swab, gently chop off.
- Insert the needle into the ampoule and, slowly pulling the piston, get the right amount of medicine.
- Turn the syringe upwards and, tapping with the finger of the other hand through the flask, to ensure that air bubbles accumulate at the base needles.
- Pressing the piston, squeeze out air until a drop appears medicines on the tip of the needle.
- If you need to prepare a dog for drug administration, a needle close with a sterile cap and set aside.
It should be remembered that the medicine should be room temperature. The introduction of a cold solution causes pain and can provoke tissue inflammation. The easiest way to warm medicine – hold and roll between the palms an ampoule with medicine or typed syringe.
If the ampoule is opened, but not all the medicine is used, then you can pick up another syringe and store it with the needle closed in the fridge. Keep open ampoule and use from it the medicine the next day is not allowed. Store the medicine in a syringe can be no longer than 3 days.
You can use only clearly labeled ampoules on which the name of the medicine and the expiration date are visible. Before taking medication you must read the instructions in the syringe – some drugs before dialing and administration should be mixed by shaking the ampoule. Marked containers must be discarded, even if the owner remembers what the medicine is. Do not risk life and health of the pet.
There must be instructions for the drug to accurately know the route of administration. So, for example, diphenhydramine can be administered only intramuscularly or intravenously. Calcium chloride is administered exclusively into a vein, and Essential N – only intramuscularly. Wrong the chosen delivery location may cause an abscess or necrosis tissues. If the owner is not sure how to give an injection Your pet needs to consult a veterinarian.
It’s not worth collecting a few drugs into the tank if it’s not stipulated in the instructions or was not recommended by the veterinarian. Not all medicines can be combined. Some weaken the effect each other, others enter into chemical reactions with the formation of toxic substances.
The technique of introducing medication under the skin
The most commonly used area for subcutaneous injection is the withers – a place for honey with the shoulder blades of the forepaws. Here there are few nerve endings, and even an inexperienced host can Be sure that it will not cause severe pain to the animal. But it follows take into account that the skin in this area is thicker, and the needle is small diameter may warp or break. It should be entered slowly, carefully.
A subcutaneous injection can be made between the lower part of the lateral surface of the abdomen and the convex part of the thigh. Seize the skin fingers into the crease, slightly pulled up, spread apart with your fingers wool and at an angle of 45 ° introduce a needle. The needle in the thickness of the skin comes with resistance. Only when the needle “falls through” can be sure that the tip is under the skin and should be introduced a drug.
Pre-treat the epidermis with a disinfectant no necessary. Dogs have their own skin surface antibacterial barrier. Injections need only be replaced with intact epidermis.
Technique of injection into the thickness of the muscle
The technique of intramuscular injection is somewhat more complicated, since there is a risk of getting into the capillary or nerve. An injection is put at the withers or big muscle on the thigh. It is better to introduce painful withers drugs. The thigh is pricked to the side of the knee, above the knee fold. To clearly define the muscle, you can bend the dog’s foot in the knee.
With intramuscular injection, the needle is inserted at right angles to relaxed muscle. If the muscle is tense, it can be gently massage, calm the dog with a voice, pet.
For dogs up to 10 kg, a needle is injected into the muscle by 0.7-1.5 mm. Representatives of medium and large breeds are injected to a depth 1.5-3.5 mm. Rapid drug administration can cause pain sensations in the dog. Therefore, you should give an injection with confidence, enter the needle slowly, tracking resistance and not allowing too much deep immersion of the needle into the tissue.
Cauterize the injection site with alcohol if when the needle is removed, blood appears. Do not force animal. It is necessary to calm him, prepare for injection morally. It’s easier to perform manipulations together when one holds dog, calms her, and the other calmly makes an injection.
With the right injection site and following all the rules There are no complications. But for some time the owner has to keep track condition of the dog after the injection, and if the animal behaves unusual – limping, whining, nervous, then you need to show animal to the vet. Every dog owner should be able to do injections, because life can depend on his skill and determination pet.