Hematoma, or bruising, is a common occurrence in active and moving pets, constantly looking for adventure. Pathologies may be insignificant or have a threatening appearance, but in any case they deserve attention. How to provide first aid when a hematoma appears in dogs, and in which cases a doctor is required help?
- 1. Types of hematomas
- 2. Causes and manifestations of hematoma
- 3. First aid
- 4. Treatment of hematoma
Types of hematomas
There is a classification according to which several types of hematomas, based on the type of damaged vessels. Bruise may be:
- venous – hemorrhage resulting from damage venous walls;
- arterial – damage affects the artery;
- mixed – occurs when integrity is violated immediately several vessels of the circulatory system, it may be a vein, artery. capillaries;
- pulsating – a hematoma resulting from a wall defect aorta.
In addition, at the location of the hematoma it happens:
- intermuscular – occurs between muscle tissues;
- subcutaneous – hemorrhage localized under the skin;
- retroperitoneal – in the peritoneum;
- intraorgan – is formed in the tissues of the internal organ;
- intracranial – blood accumulates in the brain;
- pararectal – appears in the area of the rectum.
Some hemorrhages do not bother the pet in any way, while others can cause significant discomfort and may even worsen general condition of the animal.
Causes and manifestations of hematoma
There are many situations that can cause hemorrhage:
- trauma to the animal, accompanied by significant bruises soft tissues, bone fractures, ruptures of blood vessels;
- the occurrence of microtrauma in the surgical process interventions;
- bites of other dogs and other animals.
With bruising, blood coagulates and dissolves in liquid parts. White blood cells are responsible for this process. – white blood cells. Then, in areas with clotted blood, sprouting of connective tissue. In some cases of this the material forms a capsule filled with fluid – cystic education.
The risks of hematomas increase when animal elasticity of vascular walls and coagulability is reduced blood. A swelling appears in the area with hemorrhage. More often all this happens immediately after the damage. It rapidly increasing in size, its boundaries are clearly delineated.
If a limb is injured, then its mobility may be noticeably limited. The appearance of a hematoma may be accompanied by some changes in the condition of the pet:
- an increase in body temperature in the area with bruising – a sure sign of the development of infection in place hemorrhage;
- lymph nodes may increase – this is a reaction of the body on a pathogenic pathogen;
- possible deformation of the damaged organ, its functionality broken.
Most often, dogs have hematomas of the auricles, often hemorrhage suppurates. A similar factor increases the likelihood secondary infection.
If the hemorrhage does not stop for a long time, then the dog body temperature can increase dramatically (to critical levels), and his general condition is getting worse. In this case, do not hesitate and it is better to provide emergency assistance on your own. Make The following is recommended:
- Apply an ice or cold compress to the area of injury: ice, placed in a bag, a cloth dampened with cold water, or a heating pad, with it filled out. Such an event will help stop bleeding and reduce pain, but it should be used correctly. To ice did not damage the skin; it should first be wrapped with a cloth. The compress can be kept on one site for no longer than 15 minutes, which eliminates the possibility of frostbite on the fabric. After 2-3 hours, the procedure recommended to repeat.
- The damage area is allowed to be treated with iodine solution – you can apply a mesh that has anti-inflammatory action.
- A tight bandage is applied to the hematomas. Best for this use bandages. But if the dressing is done in the field, then you can take any sterile material for these purposes, suitable clean handkerchief or napkin.
If subcutaneous hemorrhage reaches a large size, then You can apply a paraffin compress. Also speed up the process resorption helps exposure to heat: warming under a special lamp, the use of warming ointments. But thermal procedures should be carried out after swelling subsides, not earlier than a day after the appearance of the hematoma.
Watch a video about ear hematoma in dogs:
If conservative therapy is prescribed, the veterinarian prescribes external funds: ointments, gels. Also a complex additional procedures: exposure to a lamp, infrared radiation etc. In some cases, surgical treatment cannot be dispensed with, and specialist appoints an operation. Similar intervention is required in following situations:
- if there is extensive hemorrhage;
- in the field of hemorrhage, the process of suppuration begins;
- if a hematoma forms in the auricle.
In order for the treatment to give positive results, the veterinarian must examine the pet and choose the appropriate technique. Therapy includes several stages:
- accumulated blood is removed from the area of damage;
- a solution of novocaine and an antibiotic is injected into this area;
- a dense bandage is applied over the resulting wound.
If hemorrhage occurs in the ear, then sometimes it is removed inflamed fluid with a syringe:
- the hematoma area is freed from the coat;
- the skin is thoroughly wiped with an antiseptic – Chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, iodine solution;
- after the upper part of the auricle the skin is pierced and draw off fluid; at this moment it is important that the four-legged the patient was well fixed and did not make sudden movements, complicating the procedure;
- after emptying the hematoma, the needle from the ear is not removed, through it a special solution is introduced, which includes an antibiotic, Dexamethasone and Novocaine; the veterinarian determines the dosage individually, based on the size of the dog and size hemorrhage.
After the operation, the specialist gives a number of recommendations for caring for dog and prescribes medications. Owner should adhere to the prescribed rehabilitation scheme.
Dogs are injured quite often, so the owner should take care that such dangerous situations arise as possible less often. And if nevertheless the trouble has occurred, it is necessary to act according to the circumstances and not let the cure drift.