Dog kidney disease occurs in all breeds. This problem is urgent for veterinary medicine, as evidenced by frequency of appeals for help from owners of small households animals. But the statistical and clinical material on renal pathology in dogs is much less common than scientific work on incidence in cats.
- 1. The most common kidney disease
- 2. Classification of renal pathologies
- 3. General symptoms of renal failure
- 4. Methods for the diagnosis of pathology
- 5. Therapies for renal pathology
- 6. Prevention of kidney disease
The most common kidney disease
The following types of diseases are most commonly found in dogs kidney:
- interstitial nephritis;
- ischemic kidney disease (heart attack).
Frequency of treatment of dog owners with chronic and acute kidney failure accounts for 10% of all cases. Moreover diseases are difficult, prolonged, disrupting activity many systems, and often lead to pet death.
Most commonly, kidney disease occurs in dogs aged older than 4 years (80%), but pathologies are also observed in puppies up to a year old. it most likely associated with intrauterine developmental disorders or kidney formation abnormalities.
Seasonality in circulation is noted – the peak falls on autumn months, due to climatic conditions. Damp, cold windy weather leads to hypothermia and inflammation of the kidneys.
Classification of renal pathologies
All kidney diseases in dogs are classified into several featured:
- By the nature of the manifestation of the pathological process:
- Depending on the lesion of the organ structures:
- interstitial tissue;
- glomerular apparatus;
- tubules of the kidneys;
- By the duration of the course of the disease:
- By etiological factor:
- By nature of distribution:
- According to the severity of the process:
- mild degree;
- By origin:
Dog kidney disease can occur as an independent (primary) pathology, and as a result of complications of the main diseases (secondary). Secondary renal failure occurs against a background of impaired immune system functions (autoimmune diseases), vascular pathologies that proceed by type thrombosis, thromboembolism, arterial hypertension.
Common symptoms of kidney failure
Dog kidney problems are accompanied by common symptoms, but there are manifestations that are characteristic only for a certain type pathologies. External manifestations of renal failure include following symptoms:
- lethargy and fatigue of the animal;
- decreased appetite;
- weight loss;
- pallor of the mucous membranes;
- dry skin;
- pain during palpation in the lumbar region and with urinating
- drop in visual acuity;
- violation of behavior and coordination of movements;
- increased urination when lowering volume urine excretion (oliguria), up to a complete cessation urination (anuria);
- fluid retention in the body leads to the formation of swelling;
- there are signs of heart failure (especially with glomerulonephritis);
- inflammatory processes are accompanied by fever body;
- decay poisoning leads to vomiting, upset stools, cramps.
Laboratory studies of urine record a change in its composition, volume, color:
- urine becomes dark, cloudy;
- urine density is reduced;
- in the urine there is the presence of: protein, blood, desquamated cells epithelium, protein cylinders, high white blood cell count indicates the bacterial nature of the disease.
Clinical blood tests note the following changes:
- high levels of urea and creatine, which indicates about acidosis;
- high content of minerals – potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and decrease in calcium and sodium;
- moderate decrease in red blood cell count (anemia);
- increase in the number of neutrophilic white blood cells;
- increase in ESR.
Progression of pathology leads to increased intoxication decay products, violation of water-salt homeostasis and pH organism, decrease metabolic processes, increase decay proteins and violation of plastic processes. Lack of treatment leads to an increase in pathological changes and death of the dog.
Methods for the diagnosis of pathology
To identify the causes of the disease and assess the severity of the process in Veterinary clinics conduct differential diagnosis. She carried out using the following methods:
- delivery of clinical, biochemical, hematological studies blood and urine;
- Ultrasound of the functions and condition of the kidneys and abdominal organs cavities;
- CT or MRI in case of suspected renal infarction.
Based on the results of laboratory, physical, instrumental research and analysis of the information collected the veterinarian makes a diagnosis and develops an individual scheme treatment. Found that the most common cause of kidney disease in dogs is a violation of the content, errors in the diet pets. Thus, the main fault lies with the owners animals.
Renal pathology treatment methods
Treatment is carried out using such methods of therapy, as:
- drug therapy;
Drug therapy depends on the cause of the pathology and symptomatic manifestations:
|Purpose of exposure||Drug group||Drug name|
|Bacterial and viral infections||Antibiotics||Biseptolum, Nitroksolin, Amoxicillin, Tsifran, Baytril|
|Suppression of immunological reactions, improvement of urine excretion, elimination of edema||Glucocorticoids||Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Metipred|
|Strengthening diuresis, eliminating edema||Diuretics||Furosemide, Veroshpiron|
|Normalization of potassium in the body||Potassium preparations||Panangin, Asparkam|
|Elimination of putrefactive processes in the digestive tract, normalization of bowel movements, urea stabilization||Probiotics||Lactusan, Lactulose (Enema), Vetom|
|Recovery of water-salt balance||Droppers with saline solutions||Ringer Ringer|
|Pain relief||Antispasmodics||No-shpa, papaverine|
|Maintaining heart function, normalizing pressure||Antihypertensive drugs, cardioprotectors||Enap, Carboxylase, Preductal, Riboxin, Neoton|
If necessary and severe intoxication is prescribed dialysis:
- peritoneal dialysis.
Of great importance in the treatment of renal pathologies and prevention progression, disease recurrence has diet therapy. FROM Using an adequately designed diet, it is possible to:
- weaken the symptoms of pathology in the form of dyspeptic violations;
- reducing the amount of protein in your diet helps to cope with acidosis;
- an increase in dietary fiber content provides an alternative way to eliminate toxins and metabolic products – with feces;
- provide minerals and vitamins for recovery metabolism;
- restoration of body weight with products containing non-protein calories, vitamins, essential fatty acids.
In extreme cases, surgery may be required, for example, to remove calculi from the kidneys. The problem is the fact that not all veterinarians can provide surgical treatment renal pathology. To avoid serious kidney disease, long and costly treatment, methods must be applied prevention.
There is a pedigree predisposition to kidney pathologies in dogs. For example, in Dalmatians, dachshunds, bulldogs, terriers more often than in other breeds, urolithiasis is detected. Therefore the owner must know the characteristics of the breed of his pet and spend prevention of renal pathologies:
- Visit the veterinarian regularly to monitor status and functions. the kidneys.
- Observe drinking regimen, especially when eating dry feed and high motor activity of the dog, as well as in the hot period time.
- Visiting a veterinarian should be regular with age – not less than 1 time in 6 months.
As the experience of veterinarians and statistics shows, it’s from responsible host behavior depends on health and well-being his pet. This is also true for renal pathologies in dogs.