Botulism is an acute feed toxicoinfection of animals and human, manifested in the form of paralysis of the pharynx, tongue, lower jaw, a sharp weakening of the tone of skeletal muscles and gastrointestinal upset.

The causative agent of the disease is a spore-forming anaerobic microbe Clostridium botulinum. Of the seven available types of pathogen, the most virulent are type A and C. Spores are located subterminally and give the microbe the appearance of a tennis racket. Disputes possess high stability in the environment.

Most often, botulism affects minks, ferrets, somewhat less often Arctic foxes, foxes, dogs and cats, regardless of age. Natural botulism pathogen habitat – gastrointestinal tract cattle and some species of carnivores, where does he come from feces enter the external environment, where disputes continue maintain their biological properties for a long time. Factors pathogens are infected inferior feed, especially dangerous meat of dead animals, carcasses of which lay several hours unbroken; the corpses of small rodents where accumulation of toxins has occurred; infected meat and fish products.

Infection occurs by eating infected feed in raw form. Botulism can occur at any time of the year. Enzootia lasts from 3 to 5 days. Mortality can be 70–95%.


The incubation period of botulism lasts from 8-10 to 24 hours, less often up to 2-3 days. The disease, as a rule, proceeds overbuilding, less often acutely, which is determined by the amount received in the body toxin.

Sick dogs refuse to feed, sluggish, experience increased thirst, normal body temperature. Bowel movement speeded up, feces semi-liquid, fetid, sometimes contain pieces undigested feed, as well as bloody mucus. Disease develops intensively, frequent vomiting appears. In the future may hind limb paralysis develop, neck muscles become relaxed, animals can hardly move, shaky gait. By the end of the disease, pulse and breathing become more frequent, urination and bowel movements slow down, peristalsis becomes weakened. Botulism in arctic foxes and foxes is manifested by oppression, violation coordination of movement, hind limb paralysis, abdominal type breathing and sometimes vomiting.


Provide medical care in view of the acute and acute course the disease is not possible.

When botulism occurs, animals are excluded from the diet Suspicious meat and fish feed or they are fed after careful heat treatment. Similarly do with vegetable self-heating and moldy feed. Special attention must be paid to feed quality after jigging puppies and in the first days after vaccination.

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