Anaplasmosis in dogs or infectious thrombocytopenia is a disease of bacterial origin. Its pathogens are microorganisms that infect platelets of an animal that responsible for blood coagulation. This pathology is not transmitted only to dogs, but also to other animals, and carriers of infection are insects.
- 1. Stages of the disease and symptoms
- 2. Diagnosis of anaplasmosis in dogs
- 3. Treatment of anaplasmosis in dogs
- 4. Preventive actions against anaplasmosis
- 5. Recommendations of specialists and features of the disease
- 6. Can a person get anaplasmosis from his pet
Stages of the disease and symptoms
Anaplasmosis is transmitted through tick bites – the most severe the form of the disease can infect the black-footed tick, the disease, obtained from a brown dog tick has less complex effects. Due to the mode of transmission, outbreaks of infection are seasonal – in spring and autumn.
There are three stages of anaplasmosis in dogs, and each is different in duration and symptoms:
- First stage. It is acute and leaks in within 21 days after being bitten by a tick. Penetrating into the body pathogenic bacteria choose red blood cells as the location white blood cells and platelets are less likely to populate. When intense anaplasma reproduction, the dog’s immune mechanisms are triggered and destroy affected cells. Main symptom similar action is an acute form of anemia. Among others signs can note the following:
- the dog has an increase in lymph nodes;
- mucous membranes turn yellow;
- the pet has difficulty breathing;
- blood circulation processes are disturbed;
- all this is accompanied by an increase in temperature.
Microscopic examination of the blood shows who the blood cells have changed in size, polychromasia and violation are observed in the activity of red blood cells. This period, although accompanied by many unpleasant conditions, yet not threatening for a dog’s life. Most diseased animals can be cured. it is in this stage, but sometimes the ailment still goes into more serious – subclinical form.
- Second stage. At this point, the animal looks quite healthy. Pathogenic bacteria are located inside spleen cells, and a diagnostic examination often reveals an increase in this organ is splenomegaly. This stage is protracted and can last from a couple of months to several years. Reveal anaplasmosis in this form is difficult, for this, first of all, blood test required. The result will be thrombocytopenia is indicated (low platelet count), and also an increased amount of globulins.
- Third stage. This stage signals that the disease has become chronic. Thrombocytopenia develops so much that most sick dogs severe bleeding appears. Among the main features the appearance on the body of multiple hematomas in urine blood appears, very often blood flows through the nose.
Naturally, it is important, as early as possible, to identify the disease and for it recognition will help diagnosis.
Diagnosis of anaplasmosis in dogs
This disease belongs to those ailments that are extremely difficult to diagnose only by evaluating the clinical picture and external signs. If the veterinarian has even the slightest doubt the accuracy of the diagnosis, a number of procedures are assigned. Effective results in the case of anaplasmosis can be obtained by putting enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (briefly – ELISA) and PCR assessment – polymerase chain reaction.
At the peak of the development of the disease, the professional will not Labor examine pathogens through a microscope. Only comprehensive diagnostic measures can help determine what became the cause of the disease. But here errors are possible, since mites transmit another infection similar to anaplasmosis in dogs – pyroplasmosis. Even the methods listed are not always distinguish what kind of illness the dog has.
Differential diagnosis in this case is assessing the response of the animal to the prescribed treatment. If a with therapy against pyroplasmosis the dog does not get better, then apply treatment against anaplasma.
Often, dogs become infected simultaneously with two species bacterial infection, and then therapy is applied immediately from two pathogens.
Dog treatment for anaplasmosis
Therapy of anaplasmosis, as well as with similar infections, mite carriers (e.g. tick-borne barreliosis, ehrlichiosis) consists in taking the antibiotic Doxycycline. Many infected pets take a month-long course of this. facilities.
If the treatment of anaplasmosis in a dog is prescribed in a timely manner, then the pet gets rid of unpleasant symptoms in the first day, less often two days after the start of taking the antibiotic. In this case veterinarians give very positive predictions for further state of the animal.
But even with a significant improvement in the clinical picture, there are certain difficulties in figuring out what is in the body infection or not, are present. If the dog no longer produces antibodies against β-staphylococci, which means that there are no more pathogenic bacteria.
It will not work out with a blood test, since even in the event of a complete recovery, he can give positive results. It is because of such uncertainty that doctors are often secure and prescribe a second course of drugs so that the analysis gave a negative answer.
Preventive actions against anaplasmosis
Naturally, every dog owner wants, if possible, protect your pet from such unpleasant diseases. How so It can be done?
It’s worth immediately clarifying that a preventive vaccine against Anaplasmosis in dogs does not exist. Therefore it is necessary to resort to other methods. For these purposes, means of long-term actions with repellent properties that repel insects, including ticks. By the way, they are well tolerated animals. You can buy special drops, soaked collar substances. Modern tools are capable of more than just scare off, but also destroy the tick.
Recommendations of specialists and features of the disease
Experienced breeders and veterinarians can provide some useful Tips for novice dog breeders to consider:
- No need to wait for the tick season, treat the pet with special means better two to three weeks before it. Also do not forget from time to time repeat these manipulations. About the timing of the re processing there is information on the preparations themselves and products.
- After walking, you must examine the dog for skin and insect hair, quick tick detection significantly reduces risks complications. In general, the tick does not immediately attach to the skin and occurs infection, it is long enough – 12-16 hours can only get to the bite site.
- You can remove a biting insect, with a certain dexterity, and at home, using special hook attachment. But if there is no experience, it is better to contact for help at the vet clinic. Sometimes timely assistance can not only save the dog from the troubles of the disease, but also save a life.
Doctors warn that ticks are carriers of many diseases, and one such small insect can infect a pet right away several infections. Naturally, if anaplasmosis is occur with ehrlichiosis or another similar ailment, and not one, then the forecast may be disappointing.
The risks of infection increase during walks in the area with high vegetation, grass and shrubs – a favorite place ticks.
Can a person get anaplasmosis from his pet
Of course, the question is very important, because dogs most often live at home, contact with children. Studies have shown that anaplasma can penetrate the human body and develop there. However no one recorded case of transmission of this bacterium from an animal to humans, and infection between animals has not been recorded anywhere. Specialists, of course, do not exclude this possibility, but consider such an option is unlikely.
It is worth noting that finding ticks in a dog is a signal that in the environment is unsafe, including for people. In this case, measures are usually taken to eliminate the threat by treatment of vegetation with acaricidal agents. Similar events are required for health facilities, parks recreation, open-air museums.