Leptospirosis is an infectious disease found in everyone. mammals. Dogs are especially susceptible to this disease. representatives of breeds with a loose (crude) constitution – sharpei, English mastiff, Mastino-Neapolitan, Bloodhound, boxer, basset hound. If a dog develops leptospirosis, it is in danger is located and its owner.
- 1. The causative agent and causes of the disease
- 2. Symptoms and signs of the disease
- 3. Methods for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs
- 4. Therapy of the disease in dogs
- 5. Prevention of pathology
The causative agent and causes of the disease
Pathology in dogs is caused by anaerobic facultative microbes – leptospira. A huge number of strains of these microorganisms conditionally divided into 2 classes:
- saprophytes living in the environment (soil, water bodies):
- pathogenic, parasitic inside mammals.
It is the second type (Leptospira interrogans) of microorganisms and causes leptospirosis in dogs. The causative agent is extremely sensitive to environmental conditions – dies under the influence of UV radiation, high temperature, when treated with disinfectants, pH shift of the habitat to the acid side. However in stagnant leptospira can last a long time in water, in marshy and moist soil be in a viable state, which plays an important role in infection of animals. This pathology has 2 forms:
- Weil-Vasiliev disease – icteric leptospirosis;
- anicteric appearance or “water fever”.
Dog may become infected with leptospirosis through damage to the skin and mucous membrane (wounds, abrasions). Through the entrance gate of infection – damage to epidermis, a pathogenic microorganism enters the bed of the lymphatic stream, then into the systemic circulation, carrying it to the organs, provoking general damage to the animal’s body. Leptospira affects the kidneys, liver, circulatory system.
An anicteric form of leptospirosis is easier. Defeat body systems with Weil-Vasiliev’s disease can lead to the death of the dog. Pathogenic spirochetes penetrate the dog’s body alimentary (fecal-oral), water and contact.
Symptoms and signs of the disease
Leptospirosis is characterized by an acute onset, undulating course, fever, hemorrhage (hemorrhage in the tissue), jaundice, intoxication, progressive renal failure and signs of aseptic meningitis (inflammation of the membranes of the head brain).
The incubation period – from the beginning of the introduction of the infectious agent before the first symptoms appear, it usually takes 7-10 days. Life features of leptospira affect the manifestation symptoms. The increase in symptoms corresponds to parasitism in organ, subsiding symptoms – the pathogen goes into the bloodstream. Symptoms of the acute course of the disease in a dog are:
- sudden increase in temperature, fever;
- decreased appetite, up to a complete rejection of food;
- dark urine with blood;
- difficulty urinating;
- putrid smell from the mouth;
- diarrhea with traces of blood in the stool.
The progression of the disease is characterized by signs of severe liver damage and intoxication:
- the temperature drops to normal values;
- hemorrhages appear on the oral mucosa (hemorrhage) and ulcers;
- signs of hemorrhage and ulceration in the intestines (bloody diarrhea), liver (yellowing of the sclera of the eyes, mucous membranes), kidneys (blood in the urine);
- palpation of the abdomen marked pain, especially in area of the liver;
- pain during percussion (tapping) in the area the kidneys.
Young dogs and puppies of one week old and up to 2 years old leptospirosis can proceed with lightning speed. All phases of development pathologies pass within 2 hours, a maximum of 2 days. Often the owner of the dog just does not have time to take action, and the animal dies.
In the subacute phase of the course of the disease, symptoms become less pronounced, there is a wavelike of their manifestations. Chronic the form of the disease is quite rare. Symptoms of chronic Leptospirosis in dogs appears as:
- anemia – the mucous membranes become pale, the dog is sluggish, lethargic;
- a rash and ulceration appears on the skin;
- the animal sheds, bald spots may form becomes dry, loses its luster;
- when palpating, a marked increase in lymph nodes in neck and groin areas.
If a puppy bitch becomes ill with leptospirosis, then, as a rule, a miscarriage occurs or a weakened one is born, unviable offspring. The diagnosis of the disease can make only vet. Experienced specialist already with a visual inspection able to diagnose pathology, but to confirm it, a number of studies are needed.
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Methods for diagnosing leptospirosis in dogs
Leptospira visible under a microscope in biological fluids – serum and urine, therefore the main diagnostic method is a blood and urine test:
- determination of the presence of microorganisms in liquids;
- PCR testing for the presence of antigens and antibodies;
- serological studies;
- determination of the level of bilirubin, protein in the urine, etc.
To determine the degree of damage to the parenchymal organs, an ultrasound scan is required. Assays for differentiation leptospirosis from pathologies with similar symptoms – infectious hepatitis, carnivorous plague, trichomoniasis, listeriosis, etc. After clarification of the diagnosis, treatment is selected, depending on the stage and severity of the course of pathology.
Dog Disease Therapy
Treatment of leptospirosis occurs in a complex:
- Direct exposure to the pathogen: antiviral therapy with antibiotics and antiviral drugs. The introduction of special serum with destroyed boiling with leptospira.
- Symptomatic therapy is based on the treatment of pathological changes in the cardiovascular system (vitamins C, B, drugs Rutin, Cardiamine, Riboxin). Renal and liver failure (Carsil, Galstena). Are assigned drugs for detoxification of the body, antihistamine therapy. Restore the water-salt balance by the introduction of saline.
- Maintenance therapy consists in the introduction vitamin-mineral complexes and taking decoctions of herbs with choleretic effect.
An animal that has had leptospirosis should follow a strict diet. Leptospirosis treatment is long and not always effective. According to statistics, up to 50% die from infection sick dogs. Therefore, to prevent the disease, adhere to preventive measures.
The main method for preventing leptospirosis is timely vaccination of the animal. Puppies 2-4 months old give a shot of the vaccine twice during this period. Adult animals need to be vaccinated once a year. The peak of infection is in warm periods of the year, so immunization is best done preventively – in the winter.
If the owner is attentive and careful to his pet, then the risk of leptospirosis is minimal, and the course of the pathology is more lung with a good prognosis.