Fascioliasis – helminthiasis, from the group of trematodoses, a disease of many mammals caused by trematode Fasciola hepatica (Fasciola vulgaris). Pathogen – F. hepatica, large leaf-shaped trematode, flat. The length of the parasite is 20-30 mm, width 5–12 mm.
Fasciola parasitizes in the adult state in the bile ducts liver, sometimes in the gall bladder, in the early stages – in the liver tissue in nutria, rabbits, many wild and domestic mammals, and person.
Sources and routes of infection
Fasciols develop with the participation of intermediate hosts – freshwater mollusks that are most commonly found on especially wet areas. Adult parasites lay eggs in the liver of sick animals that go out with bile into the intestines, from where they get into the environment with feces. At in favorable conditions, larvae develop from eggs in 10-12 days (miracidia). In the external environment, eggs are very stable. With sufficient humidity, they retain the ability to develop throughout the year. Miracidia are actively introduced into the body of the intermediate host. IN liver they turn into tailed larvae that leave clam and swim freely in the water. Fasciol’s development cycle the intermediate host’s body lasts about three months, in depending on temperature conditions. Cercariae are covered in water shell and turn into adolescari. They swim freely in water bodies, sink to the bottom or attach to aquatic plants. Most animals become infected in the pasture.
Fascioliasis is acute or chronic. In acute form fascioliasis animals lose their appetite, lethargic, lie for a long time, quickly lose weight, the fur becomes tousled. Progressive weakness. Incisors lose their orange-yellow color and acquire gray yellow or even grayish white. There is pain in area of the liver. In individual animals, body temperature rises to 39-40 degrees Celsius. Sometimes before death, there are nervous agitation and cramps. Nutria die due to exhaustion, or from purulent inflammation of the bile ducts. Parasitic toxins poison the body. Morphological and chemical composition of blood. Cattle reduces milk yield. Small cattle (goats, sheep) die with intense invasion.
In acute form of fascioliasis – a triple dose of per os bithionol at a dose of 0.2 g / kg of animal weight with a one-day interval between receptions. In chronic fascioliasis and for prevention apply albendatim-100 once at 0.2 g / kg of nutria mass, thimbndazole 22% granulate at 0.045 g / kg. Therapeutic measures play secondary role compared to preventive, because the disease is often detected after slaughter of animals. To avoid contamination should not be given to nutrias from wet meadows and pastures, dysfunctional disease. Do not water animals with water from open water bodies (swampy lakes, ponds, etc.) and feed them grass from areas where mollusks live – intermediate hosts of parasites.