This pathology is associated with an increase in pressure inside the eye, which occurs against the background of any disease of this organ. it severe illness, capable in some cases of depriving pets vision, significantly complicating their lives. So, glaucoma in dogs and other pets require compulsory treatment, and owners need to be more attentive to their favorites.
- 1. Causes of Glaucoma in Dogs
- 2. Classification and types of disease
- 3. Symptoms of the disease
- 4. Diagnostics
- 5. The treatment of glaucoma
Causes of Glaucoma in Dogs
There are many factors that, if not directly, then indirectly, provoke the occurrence of glaucoma, increasing the risks. IN in some cases, the pathology is related to the breed animal.
In the initial stages, the disease practically does not manifests, usually it is detected only with significant progression. Therefore, if the owner has the slightest suspicions of a possible change in vision in a pet, it is worth going preventive diagnostics.
The following conditions and phenomena may affect visual impairment. dogs:
- The risk group includes representatives of the following breeds: spaniel, beagle, dalmatian, husky, samoyed husky, hounds, labradors.
- If chronic eye ailments are not treated, including conjunctivitis, then the development of irreversible processes is possible, leading to subsequent blindness.
- Steroid therapy for organs of vision significantly increases the risk of glaucoma, and the disease may to progress rapidly.
- Pet age – elderly dogs are diagnosed with glaucoma more often than in young individuals.
- Genetic addiction – recommended for owners ask if there was a similar disease in the family and pet, this is usually indicated in the pedigree. If the answer is yes, then it is advisable to bring your pet to the vet regularly for preventive examination.
- Injury to the organ of vision – this factor is considered the main not only for glaucoma, but also for cataracts. In this case, the animal needs emergency medical care, as it is often fast irreversible processes occur.
In addition, the disease often occurs against the background of others diseases: diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, etc.
Classification and types of disease
There are several types and forms of pathology. Depending on the causes of glaucoma, distinguish between primary and secondary disease. In the first case, an illness occurs in a healthy dog, Moreover, provoking factors and addiction are absent. In the second pathology is associated with existing eye diseases, a violation the position of the lens or uevit.
In addition, glaucoma is divided based on the front angle cameras: closed, open or narrow. Both types of classification are used for this pathology and are found in a variety of variations:
- Hereditary form of the disease. Predisposition to pathology at the gene level is quite strong, so with diagnosing primary glaucoma, it is necessary to examine and treat not only a sore eye, but also a second, quite healthy and not having signs of violation.
- Primary type of open angle glaucoma. It is hereditary pathology that affects primarily the beagle and the poodle. Pathology is chronic, increased intraocular pressure occurs slowly and gradually. Even with significant progression, the pet’s vision is maintained.
- Goniodysplasia. As a rule, given primary glaucoma with narrow Samoyed huskies, Labradors, cockers, representatives suffer from a corner beagle breeds. The disease is accompanied by severe symptoms, and when one eye is affected, the second also needs to be examined. Possible reduction in intraocular pressure, but there is a risk that the corner closes and the dog goes blind.
Ultrasound is prescribed if observed. an increase in the size of the eyeball.
Symptoms of the disease
Like most diseases, glaucoma begins to manifest itself. only as it develops. Therefore, doctors recommend the slightest sign of leading a pet to the clinic for examination. A progressive disease is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- excessive secretion of tear fluid;
- severe hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the eye caused by episcleral puffiness;
- lethargy and lethargy, the dog refuses active games and other favorite activities;
- turbidity sclera;
- an increase in the size of the visual organ, this phenomenon is still called the bull’s eye;
- soreness not only in the eye, but in the entire half of the muzzle from the inflammatory process;
- a complete refusal of food or a partial loss of appetite;
- isolation – the pet does not want to communicate with any family members, not with other animals;
- the development of partial disorientation;
- fear of light, the dog is trying to hide in a darker location;
- the retina, optic nerve atrophy, and the dog becomes blind – this is the result of strong pressure on the blood vessels system.
All of the above symptoms of the disease are considered common, but their combination and intensity largely depend on the type of ailment and degree of its progression.
In addition, the primary form of pathology may not have at all any signs. In this case, only the disease can be detected. by measuring intraocular pressure. Also this type of disease sometimes causes the following symptoms:
- swelling of the cornea of the eye;
- pupil dilation;
If the disease develops for a long period of time, symptoms becomes brighter, the symptoms intensify. Secondary disease has similar symptoms, but it’s important to consider that they signal the development of the underlying pathology or underlying cause.
Specific techniques are used to identify eye pathology. using special devices:
- Tonometry. With a tonometer – Schiotz or applanation, the animal measures the pressure inside the eye. In healthy dogs this the indicator varies between 15-25 mm RT. Art. With increase of this value, the dog is diagnosed with glaucoma, with lowering more often He’ll kill everything. Pressure should be the same in left and right eye, the difference is more than 10 mm Hg also considered as sign of glaucoma.
- Gonioscopy This method allows you to explore the front camera. eyes, determine its angle, due to which glaucoma is detected, if it is present, or other diseases of the organs of vision. Ophthalmic the procedure is carried out using goniolins placed on corneal surface. Because of the lens, the outgoing light is refracted and makes it possible to monitor the angle and classify pathological condition.
Veterinarians warn that it is not worth waiting for a complete cure. Unfortunately, the owners bring the pet to the veterinarian already at progressive glaucoma when the condition of a sick animal noticeably worse. And in this case, a large number – up to 35%, the nerve fibers of an organ have already died.
The treatment of the disease, begun at an early stage, allows you to save animal’s vision, but not restore it to its previous level. Often, specialists are faced with negative results. the use of folk remedies. Do it categorically forbidden, as usually such experiments end the need for complete removal of the eyeball to save animal life.
Treatment includes the following aspects:
- Decreased pressure inside the eye. Since glaucoma occurs due to high intraocular pressure, the first thing to take care of specialists, this is a decrease in indicators. For emergency appointed osmotic diuretic Mannitol, which is administered intravenously.
- Cyclocryotherapy. Pause method glaucoma progression. It is the effect of cold on ciliary body of the eye, which leads to a decrease in ocular production fluid and eliminates the possibility of increased pressure. If therapy carried out at the initial stage of the disease, a complete cessation is possible pathological process.
- Reception of funds that normalize the outflow of intraocular fluid and inhibit its production:
- prostaglandins (Latanoprost, Travoprost);
- m-Cholinomimetics (Pilocarpine, Aceclidine, Fosfakol, Proserin) – have a pronounced hypotensive effect;
- adrenoblockers – non-selective (Timolol) and selective (Betaxolol) – reduce the secretion of intraocular fluid;
- adrenomimetics (Clonidine, Brimonidine);
- carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (Azopt, Diacarb, Trusopt) – capable suppress fluid production by 50% or more.
The selection of suitable medications is carried out by a specialist, based on the results of diagnostics, analyzes and the condition of the animal. In addition, the doctor must identify the root cause of the pathology.
In the conditions of a special ophthalmic veterinary clinic surgery that increases the outflow of excess moisture (in body implant drainage tubes) or reducing moisture synthesis (partial destruction of the ciliary body using a laser or cryodestruction).
But often medication and minimally invasive therapy do not desired result, then the veterinarian can recommend enucleation – removal of a painful organ, or evisceration (exenteration) – also removal, but with subsequent prosthetics of the eyeball.
Unfortunately, often animals with running form of the disease, suffering from severe pain and defeat of both eyeballs. In this situation, avoid the removal of affected organs will not work, especially since in most cases the animal either very low vision, or completely lost.
Dogs that have been in pain for a long time vision has been steadily declining, pretty quickly adapting to new conditions. Thanks to the delicate sense of smell and excellent natural coordination, the pet is gradually returning to its former life. But, naturally, he needs care and care more than his sighted brethren.
Glaucoma – A Serious Disease That Can Deprive favorite view. Therefore, with the existing predisposition, it costs pay more attention to the eyes of the pet and do not forget about the mandatory preventive examinations.